The issuing side comprises the cardholder and the issuing bank. The issuer issues payments on behalf of its customers when cardholders use branded payment cards to make purchases online.
In this context, the payment is called an outbound transfer. Outbound fund transfers may be realized from the client’s bank account, lines of credit, or credit cards. If the cardholder cannot pay off his or her debts, the issuing bank is liable for them.
In the table, we report the top-5 debit card issuers per country for the United States of America, China, India, United Kingdom, and France. In purchase volume, Chinese issuers trust the top-4.
- Nilson report. Issue 1999.. November 2016.
- [Mycardpaymentblog. Top credit card issuers in india, mycardpaymentblog.](https://mycardpaymentblog.wordpress.com/2016/05/30/2015-top-credit-card-issuers-in-india- comparison-of-last-4-years/). May 2016.